Obligation to work
LawsThere are so many labor laws in our country, but here are some of the most representative ones.
Japanese Constitution (Article 27)
"All people shall have the right and the obligation to work.
Standards for wages, hours, rest and other working conditions shall be fixed by law.
Children shall not be exploited. "
Act on Childcare Leave, Caregiver Leave, and Other Measures for the Welfare of Workers Caring for Children or Other Family Members（Child Care and Family Care Leave Act）This is a law to create an environment where you can continue working without leaving your job when pregnancy, childbirth, childcare, nursing are required. It will be possible to take nursing leave for children in half-day units instead of one-day units. Also, this law prevents harassment by bosses for reasons such as pregnancy, childbirth, childcare, and long-term care.
- 〈Childcare〉 Employers cannot refuse a childcare leave when they are offered from workers.
Also, it is said that workers should not be dismissed or treated unfairly because of offering childcare leave or taking childcare leave.
In addition, employers must allow workers who are raising children under the age of three to work shorter hours if they wish.
- 〈Nursing〉 In the case of nursing, as in the case of childcare, employers cannot refuse a request for *nursing leave from workers.
Moreover, when workers request, it is necessary to take measures to make it easier to care while working, such as exemption from overtime work and prohibition of late-night work.
A leave of absence to care for a family member who is in need of constant care for two weeks or more due to injury, illness, physical or mental disability.
Gender Equality In Employment Act（Act on Securing, Etc. of Equal Opportunity and Treatment between Men and Women in Employment）This law prohibits companies from discriminating in hiring, promotion, dismissal, etc., because of their gender.
By the way, it is the influence of this law that the name of the occupation has changed from stewardess to flight attendant.
When this law was first enacted, there was no penalty but only obligation to make the best efforts. It's just a goal to achieve. But it became a prohibition provision when it was amended in 1999.
In addition, the subsequent revision added prohibition on disadvantageous treatment due to childbirth, childcare, discrimination against men, and sexual harassment.
Thanks to this law, it contributes to the promotion of women taking childbirth and childcare leave and the continuation of their careers, and it leads to the elimination of the labor shortage.
Labor Standards ActIt is a law established in 1947 that sets the minimum standards for working conditions. Specifically, the principle of working hours such as 40 hours a week and 8 hours a day, and raising wages for overtime / holiday work are stipulated.
Minimum Wage ActIt is a law derived from the Labor Standards Act. There is a minimum wage.
Industrial Safety and Health ActThis is also a law derived from the Labor Standards Act.
The purpose is to ensure the safety and health of workers in the workplace and promote a comfortable working environment by clarifying the responsibility system.
Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance ActThis law was established in 1947.
The purpose is to provide insurance to workers who had an accident while working or commuting.
Act on Employment Promotion etc. of Persons with DisabilitiesIt is a law based on *normalization that aims to stabilize the employment of people with disabilities.
There are obligations for employers to hire people with disabilities and prohibition of discrimination.
This idea is to realize a society in which all people are respected as individuals regardless of their disabilities, and all people are not separated by disabilities, and coexist while respecting each other's personality and individuality.
・There are countless laws on labor, and only a few of which are introduced here. "Work" is so important.